Recommended Literature Resources

Recommended articles

Editor: Robert Magnussen, MD

The following articles have been recommended by members of the International Patellofemoral Study Group.

Nomenclature
The Normal Patellofemoral Joint

Patellofemoral Pain Syndrome

Patellofemoral Joint Instability

Patellofemoral cartilage restoration

Patellofemoral Arthritis


Nomenclature

Patellar nomenclature: The tower of babel revisited.
Grelsamer R P.
Clinical orthopaedics and related research, 2005, (436), 60-65.

The Normal Patellofemoral Joint

Anatomy

Recognition of evolving medial patellofemoral anatomy provides insight for reconstruction.
Tanaka MJ, Chahla JA, Farr J, 2nd, et al.
Knee Surg Sports Traumatol Arthrosc. 2018.

Quantitative and Qualitative Analysis of the Medial Patellar Ligaments: An Anatomic and Radiographic Study.
Kruckeberg BM, Chahla J, Moatshe G, et al.
Am J Sports Med. 2018;46(1):153-162.

Cadaveric study of the secondary medial patellar restraints: patellotibial and patellomeniscal ligaments. Kaleka CC, Aihara LJ, Rodrigues A, de Medeiros SF, de Oliveira VM, de Paula Leite Cury R.
Knee Surg Sports Traumatol Arthrosc. 2017;25(1):144-151.

Medial Patellofemoral Ligament, Medial Patellotibial Ligament, and Medial Patellomeniscal Ligament: Anatomic, Histologic, Radiographic, and Biomechanical Study.
Hinckel BB, Gobbi RG, Demange MK, et al.
Arthroscopy. 2017;33(10):1862-1873.

The Anatomic Midpoint of the Attachment of the Medial Patellofemoral Complex.
Tanaka MJ, Voss A, Fulkerson JP.
J Bone Joint Surg Am. 2016;98(14):1199-1205.

Origin and insertion of the medial patellofemoral ligament: a systematic review of anatomy.
Aframian A, Smith TO, Tennent TD, Cobb JP, Hing CB.
Knee Surg Sports Traumatol Arthrosc. 2016.

The anatomy of the medial patellofemoral ligament.
Baldwin J L.
The American journal of sports medicine, 2009, 37(12), 2355-2361.2355-2361.

Anatomy of the lateral retinaculum of the knee.
Merican AM, Amis AA.
J Bone Joint Surg Br. 2008;90(4):527-534.

Current concepts review: The medial patellofemoral ligament.
Bicos J, Fulkerson J P, & Amis A.
The American journal of sports medicine. 2007, 35(3), 484-492.

Anatomical analysis of the medial patellofemoral ligament of the knee, especially the femoral attachment.
Nomura E, Inoue M, & Osada, N.
Knee surgery, sports traumatology, arthroscopy, 2005, 13(7), 510-515.

Biomechanics

Biomechanical Evaluation of the Medial Stabilizers of the Patella. LaPrade MD, Kallenbach SL, Aman ZS, et al.
Am J Sports Med. 2018;46(7):1575-1582.

Anatomical factors influencing patellar tracking in the unstable patellofemoral joint.
Biyani R, Elias JJ, Saranathan A, et al.
Knee Surg Sports Traumatol Arthrosc. 2014.

Changes in the length of the medial patellofemoral ligament: an in vivo analysis using 3-dimensional computed tomography. Yoo YS, Chang HG, Seo YJ, et al.
Am J Sports Med. 2012;40(9):2142-2148.

The role of the medial ligamentous structures on patellar tracking during knee flexion.
Philippot R, Boyer B, Testa R, Farizon F, Moyen B.
Knee Surg Sports Traumatol Arthrosc. 2012;20(2):331-336.

The acute effect of running on knee articular cartilage and meniscus magnetic resonance relaxation times in young healthy adults.
Subburaj K, Kumar D, Souza RB, Alizai H, Li X, Link TM, Majumdar S.
Am J Sports Med. 2012 Sep;40(9):2134-41.

Patellofemoral joint kinematics: the circular path of the patella around the trochlear axis.
Iranpour F, Merican AM, Baena FR, Cobb JP, Amis AA.
J Orthop Res. 2010 May;28(5):589-94.

How isometric are the medial patellofemoral, superficial medial collateral, and lateral collateral ligaments of the knee? Victor J, Wong P, Witvrouw E, Sloten JV, Bellemans J.
Am J Sports Med. 2009;37(10):2028-2036.

Patterns of patellofemoral articular cartilage wear in cadavers.
Gorniak GC. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther. 2009 Sep;39(9):675-83.

In vivo patellar tracking: clinical motions and patellofemoral indices.
Nha KW, Papannagari R, Gill TJ, Van de Velde SK, Freiberg AA, Rubash HE, Li G.
J Orthop Res. 2008 Aug;26(8):1067-74.

Magnetic resonance imaging of patellofemoral kinematics with weight-bearing.
Patel VV, Hall K, Ries M, Lindsey C, Ozhinsky E, Lu Y, Majumdar S.
J Bone Joint Surg Am. 2003 Dec;85-A(12):2419-24.

Patellofemoral Pain Syndrome

Pathophysiology

Age-Dependent Patellofemoral Pain: Hip and Knee Risk Landing Profiles in Prepubescent and Postpubescent Female Athletes.
Galloway RT, Xu Y, Hewett TE, et al.
Am J Sports Med. 2018;46(11):2761-2771.

The Tibial Tubercle-Trochlear Groove Distance Is Greater in Patients With Patellofemoral Pain: Implications for the Origin of Pain and Clinical Interventions.
Carlson VR, Boden BP, Shen A, Jackson JN, Yao L, Sheehan FT.
Am J Sports Med. 2017;45(5):1110-1116.

2016 Patellofemoral pain consensus statement from the 4th International Patellofemoral Pain Research Retreat, Manchester. Part 1: Terminology, definitions, clinical examination, natural history, patellofemoral osteoarthritis and patient-reported outcome measures. Crossley KM, Stefanik JJ, Selfe J, et al.
Br J Sports Med. 2016;50(14):839-843.

Increased medial foot loading during drop jump in subjects with patellofemoral pain. Rathleff MS, Richter C, Brushoj C, et al.
Knee Surg Sports Traumatol Arthrosc. 2014;22(10):2301-2307.

Factors associated with patellofemoral pain syndrome: a systematic review.
Lankhorst NE, Bierma-Zeinstra SM, van Middelkoop M.
Br J Sports Med. 2012 Jul 19. [Epub ahead of print]

Decreased pulsatile blood flow in the patella in patellofemoral pain syndrome.
Näslund J, Waldén M, Lindberg LG.
Am J Sports Med. 2007 Oct;35(10):1668-73. Epub 2007 Jun 13.

Quantitative analysis of nerve changes in the lateral retinaculum in patients with isolated symptomatic patellofemoral malalignment. A preliminary study.
Sanchis-Alfonso V, Roselló-Sastre E, Monteagudo-Castro C, Esquerdo J.
Am J Sports Med. 1998 Sep-Oct;26(5):703-9.

Histologic evidence of retinacular nerve injury associated with patellofemoral malalignment
Fulkerson JP, Tennant R, Jaivin JS, et al.
Clinical Orthopaedics and Related Research. 1985 (197), 196-205.

Diagnosis and Treatment

The outcome of hip exercise in patellofemoral pain: A systematic review.
Thomson C, Krouwel O, Kuisma R, Hebron C.
Man Ther. 2016;26:1-30.

Is Knee Pain During Adolescence a Self-limiting Condition? Prognosis of Patellofemoral Pain and Other Types of Knee Pain.
Rathleff MS, Rathleff CR, Olesen JL, Rasmussen S, Roos EM.
Am J Sports Med. 2016 Jan 20. pii: 0363546515622456. [Epub ahead of print]

2016 Patellofemoral pain consensus statement from the 4th International Patellofemoral Pain Research Retreat, Manchester. Part 2: recommended physical interventions (exercise, taping, bracing, foot orthoses and combined interventions).
Crossley KM, van Middelkoop M, Callaghan MJ, Collins NJ, Rathleff MS, Barton CJ.
Br J Sports Med. 2016;50(14):844-852.

Factors that predict a poor outcome 5-8 years after the diagnosis of patellofemoral pain: a multicentre observational analysis.
Lankhorst NE, van Middelkoop M, Crossley KM, Bierma-Zeinstra SM, Oei EH, Vicenzino B, Collins NJ.
Br J Sports Med. 2015 Oct 13. pii: bjsports-2015-094664. doi: 10.1136/bjsports-2015-094664.

Hip posterolateral musculature strengthening in sedentary women with patellofemoral pain syndrome: a randomized controlled clinical trial with 1-year follow-up.
Fukuda TY, Melo WP, Zaffalon BM, Rossetto FM, Magalhães E, Bryk FF, Martin RL.
J Orthop Sports Phys Ther. 2012 Oct;42(10):823-30.

Hip strengthening prior to functional exercises reduces pain sooner than quadriceps strengthening in females with patellofemoral pain syndrome: a randomized clinical trial.
Dolak KL, Silkman C, Medina McKeon J, Hosey RG, Lattermann C, Uhl TL.
J Orthop Sports Phys Ther. 2011 Aug;41(8):560-70. doi: 10.2519/jospt.2011.3499. Epub 2011 Jun 7.

Immediate effect and predictors of effectiveness of taping for patellofemoral pain syndrome: a prospective cohort study.
Lan TY, Lin WP, Jiang CC, Chiang H.
Am J Sports Med. 2010 Aug;38(8):1626-30. Epub 2010 May 26.

Diagnosis and treatment of patients with patellofemoral pain.
Fulkerson JP.
Am J Sports Med. 2002 May-Jun;30(3):447-56. Review.

Resection of clinically localized segments of painful retinaculum in the treatment of selected patients with anterior knee pain.
Kasim N, & Fulkerson JP.
American Journal of Sports Medicine. 2000, 28(6), 811-814.

Patellofemoral Joint Instability

Pathophysiology

Patellofemoral Instability: A Consensus Statement From the AOSSM/PFF Patellofemoral Instability Workshop. Post WR, Fithian DC.
Orthop J Sports Med. 2018;6(1):2325967117750352.

Anatomic patellar instability risk factors in primary lateral patellar dislocations do not predict injury patterns: an MRI-based study. Tompkins MA, Rohr SR, Agel J, Arendt EA.
Knee Surg Sports Traumatol Arthrosc. 2017.

Medial Patellofemoral Ligament Injuries in Children With First-Time Lateral Patellar Dislocations: A Magnetic Resonance Imaging and Arthroscopic Study.
Askenberger M, Arendt EA, Ekstrom W, Voss U, Finnbogason T, Janarv PM.
Am J Sports Med. 2016;44(1):152-158.

Individualizing the Tibial Tubercle-Trochlear Groove Distance: Patellar Instability Ratios That Predict Recurrent Instability.
Camp CL, Heidenreich MJ, Dahm DL, Stuart MJ, Levy BA, Krych AJ.
Am J Sports Med. 2016 Feb;44(2):393-9. doi: 10.1177/0363546515602483.

The Relationship Between Tibial Tuberosity-Trochlear Groove Distance and Abnormal Patellar Tracking in Patients With Unilateral Patellar Instability. Williams AA, Elias JJ, Tanaka MJ, et al.
Arthroscopy. 2016;32(1):55-61.

The Relationship Between Tibial Tuberosity-Trochlear Groove Distance and Abnormal Patellar Tracking in Patients With Unilateral Patellar Instability.
Williams AA, Elias JJ, Tanaka MJ, Thawait GK, Demehri S, Carrino JA, Cosgarea AJ.
Arthroscopy. 2016 Jan;32(1):55-61. doi: 10.1016/j.arthro.2015.06.037.

Patella instability: building bridges across the ocean a historic review.
Arendt EA, Dejour D.
Knee Surg Sports Traumatol Arthrosc. 2013 Feb;21(2):279-93.

Current concepts review: The medial patellofemoral ligament.
Bicos J, Fulkerson J P, & Amis A.
The American journal of sports medicine. 2007, 35(3), 484-492.

Patella alta: association with patellofemoral alignment and changes in contact area during weight-bearing
Ward SR, Terk MR, Powers CM.
J Bone Joint Surg Am. 2007 Aug;89(8):1749-55.

Imaging

Current evidence advocates use of a new pathologic tibial tubercle-posterior cruciate ligament distance threshold in patients with patellar instability. Boutris N, Delgado DA, Labis JS, McCulloch PC, Lintner DM, Harris JD.
Knee Surg Sports Traumatol Arthrosc. 2018;26(9):2733-2742.

Tibial tubercle-trochlear groove distance and angle are higher in children with patellar instability. Bayhan IA, Kirat A, Alpay Y, Ozkul B, Kargin D.
Knee Surg Sports Traumatol Arthrosc. 2018.

Quality assessment of radiological measurements of trochlear dysplasia; a literature review. Paiva M, Blond L, Holmich P, et al.
Knee Surg Sports Traumatol Arthrosc. 2017.

Morphology and Anatomic Patellar Instability Risk Factors in First-Time Traumatic Lateral Patellar Dislocations: A Prospective Magnetic Resonance Imaging Study in Skeletally Immature Children. Askenberger M, Janarv PM, Finnbogason T, Arendt EA.
Am J Sports Med. 2017;45(1):50-58.

Anatomical patella instability risk factors on MRI show sensitivity without specificity in patients with patellofemoral instability: a systematic review.
Ridley TJ, Bremer Hinckel B, Kruckeberg BM, Agel J, Arendt EA.
Journal of ISAKOS: Joint Disorders & Orthopaedic Sports Medicine. 2016;1(3):141-152.

What Components Comprise the Measurement of the Tibial Tuberosity-Trochlear Groove Distance in a Patellar Dislocation Population? Tensho K, Akaoka Y, Shimodaira H, et al.
J Bone Joint Surg Am. 2015;97(17):1441-1448.

Patellar Tendon-Trochlear Groove Angle Measurement: A New Method for Patellofemoral Rotational Analyses.
Hinckel BB, Gobbi RG, Kihara Filho EN, Demange MK, Pecora JR, Camanho GL.
Orthop J Sports Med. 2015;3(9):2325967115601031.

The TT-TG Index: a new knee size adjusted measure method to determine the TT-TG distance.
Hingelbaum S, Best R, Huth J, Wagner D, Bauer G, Mauch F.
Knee Surg Sports Traumatol Arthrosc. 2014 Oct;22(10):2388-95. doi: 10.1007/s00167-014-3204-1.

CT and MRI measurements of tibial tubercle-trochlear groove distances are not equivalent in patients with patellar instability.
Camp CL, Stuart MJ, Krych AJ, Levy BA, Bond JR, Collins MS, Dahm DL.
Am J Sports Med. 2013 Aug;41(8):1835-40. doi: 10.1177/0363546513484895.

Imaging in patellofemoral instability: an abnormality-based approach.
Saggin PR, Saggin JI, Dejour D.
Sports Med Arthrosc. 2012 Sep;20(3):145-51.

Magnetic resonance imaging characteristics of the medial patellofemoral ligament lesion in acute lateral patellar dislocations considering trochlear dysplasia, patella alta, and tibial tuberosity-trochlear groove distance.
Balcarek P, Ammon J, Frosch S, Walde TA, Schüttrumpf JP, Ferlemann KG, Lill H, Stürmer KM, Frosch KH.
Arthroscopy. 2010 Jul;26(7):926-35.

Non-operative Management and Recurrence

Primary patellar dislocations without surgical stabilization or recurrence: how well are these patients really doing? Magnussen RA, Verlage M, Stock E, et al.
Knee Surg Sports Traumatol Arthrosc. 2017;25(8):2352-2356.

Incidence of First-Time Lateral Patellar Dislocation: A 21-Year Population-Based Study. Sanders TL, Pareek A, Hewett TE, Stuart MJ, Dahm DL, Krych AJ.
Sports Health. 2017:1941738117725055.

High rate of recurrent patellar dislocation in skeletally immature patients: a long-term population-based study. Sanders TL, Pareek A, Hewett TE, Stuart MJ, Dahm DL, Krych AJ.
Knee Surg Sports Traumatol Arthrosc. 2017.

Surgical versus conservative management of acute patellar dislocation in children and adolescents: a systematic review. Nwachukwu BU, So C, Schairer WW, Green DW, Dodwell ER.
Knee Surg Sports Traumatol Arthrosc. 2016;24(3):760-767.

Predictors of Recurrent Patellar Instability in Children and Adolescents After First-time Dislocation.
Jaquith BP, Parikh SN.
J Pediatr Orthop. 2015 Oct 21

First-Time Patellofemoral Dislocation: Risk Factors for Recurrent Instability.
Lewallen L, McIntosh A, Dahm D.
J Knee Surg. 2015 Aug;28(4):303-9. doi: 10.1055/s-0034-1398373.

Predictors of recurrent instability after acute patellofemoral dislocation in pediatric and adolescent patients.
Lewallen LW, McIntosh AL, Dahm DL.
Am J Sports Med. 2013 Mar;41(3):575-81. doi: 10.1177/0363546512472873

Surgical Techniques

MPFL Reconstruction

Radiographic Reference Points Are Inaccurate With and Without a True Lateral Radiograph: The Importance of Anatomy in Medial Patellofemoral Ligament Reconstruction.
Ziegler CG, Fulkerson JP, Edgar C.
Am J Sports Med. 2016 Jan;44(1):133-42. doi: 10.1177/0363546515611652.

Accuracy of femoral tunnel placement in medial patellofemoral ligament reconstruction: the effect of a nearly true-lateral fluoroscopic view.
Balcarek P, Walde TA.
Am J Sports Med. 2015 Sep;43(9):2228-32. doi: 10.1177/0363546515591265.

Troubleshooting the Femoral Attachment During Medial Patellofemoral Ligament Reconstruction: Location, Location, Location.
Burrus MT, Werner BC, Conte EJ, Diduch DR.
Orthop J Sports Med. 2015 Jan 29;3(1):2325967115569198. doi: 10.1177/2325967115569198

Anatomical reconstruction of the medial patellofemoral ligament in children with open growth-plates.
Nelitz M, Reichel H, Dornacher D, Lippacher S.
Arch Orthop Trauma Surg. 2012 Nov;132(11):1647-51

Anatomical double-bundle MPFL reconstruction with an aperture fixation.
Schöttle PB, Hensler D, Imhoff AB.
Knee Surg Sports Traumatol Arthrosc. 2010 Feb;18(2):147-51.

A mini-invasive adductor magnus tendon transfer technique for medial patellofemoral ligament reconstruction: a technical note.
Sillanpää PJ, Maenpää HM, Mattila VM, Visuri T, Pihlajamäki H.
Knee Surg Sports Traumatol Arthrosc. 2009;17(5):508-512.

Reconstruction of the medial patellofemoral ligament using a quadriceps tendon graft: a case series.
Dopirak R, Adamany D, Bickel B, Steensen R.
Orthopedics. 2008;31(3):217.

Reconstruction of the medial patellofemoral ligament by tunnel transfer of the semitendinosus tendon.
Ostermeier S, Stukenborg-Colsman C, Wirth C, et al.
Operative Orthopädie und Traumatologie. 2007. 19(5-6), 489-501.

Radiographic landmarks for femoral tunnel placement in medial patellofemoral ligament reconstruction.
Schöttle PB, Schmeling A, Rosenstiel N, Weiler A.
Am J Sports Med. 2007 May;35(5):801-4.

Reconstruction of the medial patellofemoral ligament for recurrent patellar instability.
Farr J, Schepsis AA.
J Knee Surg. 2006;19(4):307-316.

Reconstruction of the medial patellofemoral ligament for the treatment of habitual or recurrent dislocation of the patella in children.
Deie M, Ochi M, Sumen Y, Yasumoto M, Kobayashi K, Kimura H.
J Bone Joint Surg Br. 2003 Aug;85(6):887-90.

Surgical technique and rationale for medial patellofemoral ligament reconstruction for recurrent patellar dislocation.
Nomura E, Inoue M.
Arthroscopy. 2003 May-Jun;19(5):E47.

Tibial Tubercle Osteotomy

Tibial Tuberosity Osteotomy: Indications, Techniques, and Outcomes.
Sherman SL, Erickson BJ, Cvetanovich GL, et al.
Am J Sports Med. 2014;42(8):2006-2017.

Tibial tuberosity transfer for episodic patellar dislocation
Servien E, Verdonk P, Neyret P.
Sports Med Arthrosc Rev, 2007, 15(2), 61-67.

Distal Realignements.
Servien E, Piedade S, Lustig S, Neyret P.
Techniche chirurgiche in Ortopedia e Traumatologia 2007, 5(3), 129-133 – German

Anteromedialization of the tibial tuberosity for patellofemoral malalignment.
Fulkerson JP.
Clin Orthop Relat Res. 1983 Jul-Aug;(177):176-81.

[Idiopathic high patella in adolescents. Apropos of 61 surgical cases].
Caton J, Mironneau A, Walch G, Levigne C, Michel CR.
Rev Chir Orthop Reparatrice Appar Mot. 1990;76(4):253-60. French.

Trochleoplasty

Open proximal trochleoplasty (Grooveplasty).
Arendt EA, Hinckel BB, Gomoll AH.
In: Parikh SN, ed. Patellar Instability and Dislocation: Classification and Operative Techniques. First ed: Lippincott Williams and Wilkins; in press, scheduled release February 1, 2019: 350 pages. ISBN: 978-1496380821.

Trochleoplasty: Historical Overview and Dejour Technique. Operative Techniques in Sports Medicine.
Hinckel BB, Arendt EA, Ntagiopoulos PG, Dejour D.
Operative Techniques in Sports Medicine. 2015;23(2):114-122.

Arthroscopic Deepening Trochleoplasty: The Technique. Operative Techniques in Sports Medicine.
Blønd L.
Operative Techniques in Sports Medicine. 23(2):136-142.

Recession wedge trochleoplasty as an additional procedure in the surgical treatment of patellar instability with major trochlear dysplasia: early results.
Thaunat M, Bessiere C, Pujol N, Boisrenoult P, Beaufils P.
Orthop Traumatol Surg Res. 2011;97(8):833-845.

Modified Dejour trochleoplasty for severe dysplasia: operative technique and early clinical results.
Donell ST, Joseph G, Hing CB, Marshall TJ.
Knee. 2006 Aug;13(4):266-73. Epub 2006 Apr 24.

Trochleoplasty in dysplastic knee trochlea.
Verdonk R, Jansegers E, Stuyts B.
Knee Surg Sports Traumatol Arthrosc. 2005 Oct;13(7):529-33.

Biomechanical Effects of Surgery

MPFL Reconstruction

Anisometry of Medial Patellofemoral Ligament Reconstruction in the Setting of Increased Tibial Tubercle-Trochlear Groove Distance and Patella Alta. Redler LH, Meyers KN, Brady JM, Dennis ER, Nguyen JT, Shubin Stein BE.
Arthroscopy. 2018;34(2):502-510.

Dynamic Simulation of the Effects of Graft Fixation Errors During Medial Patellofemoral Ligament Reconstruction. Elias JJ, Kelly MJ, Smith KE, Gall KA, Farr J.
Orthop J Sports Med. 2016;4(9):2325967116665080.

Femoral insertion site of the graft used to replace the medial patellofemoral ligament influences the ligament dynamic changes during knee flexion and the clinical outcome.
Sanchis-Alfonso V, Ramirez-Fuentes C, Montesinos-Berry E, Domenech J, Martí-Bonmatí L.
Knee Surg Sports Traumatol Arthrosc. 2015 Dec 12. [Epub ahead of print]

The effect of tibial tuberosity medialization and lateralization on patellofemoral joint kinematics, contact mechanics, and stability.
Stephen JM, Lumpaopong P, Dodds AL, Williams A, Amis AA.
Am J Sports Med. 2015 Jan;43(1):186-94. doi: 10.1177/0363546514554553.

The ability of medial patellofemoral ligament reconstruction to correct patellar kinematics and contact mechanics in the presence of a lateralized tibial tubercle.
Stephen JM, Dodds AL, Lumpaopong P, Kader D, Williams A, Amis AA.
Am J Sports Med. 2015 Sep;43(9):2198-207. doi: 10.1177/0363546515597906.

Dynamic measurement of patellofemoral contact pressure following reconstruction of the medial patellofemoral ligament: An in vitro study.
Ostermeier S, Holst M, Bohnsack M, et al.
Clinical Biomechanics. 2007, 22(3), 327-335.

In vitro measurement of patellar kinematics following reconstruction of the medial patellofemoral ligament.
Ostermeier S, Holst M, Bohnsack M, et al.
Knee surgery, Sports Traumatology, Arthroscopy. 2007, 15(3), 276-285.

Patellofemoral forces after medial patellofemoral ligament reconstruction: a biomechanical analysis.
Bicos J, Carofino B, Andersen M, et al.
The Journal of Knee Surgery. 2006, 19(4), 317-326.

Tibial Tubercle Osteotomy

Biomechanics of high tibial osteotomy.
Amis AA.
Knee Surg Sports Traumatol Arthrosc. 2013 Jan; 21(1):197-205.

Trochlear contact pressures after anteromedialization of the tibial tubercle.
Beck PR, Thomas AL, Farr J, et al.
American Journal of Sports Medicine. 2005, 33(11), 1710-1715.

Articular cartilage contact pressure after tibial tuberosity transfer. A cadaveric study.
Kuroda R, Kambic H, Valdevit A, Andrish JT.
Am J Sports Med. 2001 Jul-Aug;29(4):403-9.

Articular cartilage contact pressure after tibial tuberosity transfer. A cadaveric study.
Kuroda R, Kambic H, Valdevit A, Andrish JT.
Am J Sports Med. 2001 Jul-Aug;29(4):403-9.

Other Procedures

The effect of trochlear dysplasia on patellofemoral biomechanics: a cadaveric study with simulated trochlear deformities.
Van Haver A, De Roo K, De Beule M, et al.
Am J Sports Med. 2015;43(6):1354-1361.

Dynamic measurement of patellofemoral kinematics and contact pressure after lateral retinacular release: An in vitro study.
Ostermeier S, Holst M, Hurschler C, et al.
Knee surgery, sports traumatology, arthroscopy. 2007, 15(5), 547-554.

Distribution of patellofemoral joint pressures after femoral trochlear osteotomy.
Kuroda R, Kambic H, Valdevit A, Andrish J.
Knee Surg Sports Traumatol Arthrosc. 2002 Jan;10(1):33-7. Epub 2001 Nov 9
.

Surgical Outcomes

Medial Reefing and Lateral Release

Why are bone and soft tissue measurements of the TT-TG distance on MRI different in patients with patellar instability?
Hinckel BB, Gobbi RG, Kihara Filho EN, et al.
Knee Surg Sports Traumatol Arthrosc. 2017;25(10):3053-3060.

Medial Soft-Tissue Realignment Versus Medial Patellofemoral Ligament Reconstruction for Recurrent Patellar Dislocation: Systematic Review.
Song JG, Kang SB, Oh SH, et al.
Arthroscopy. 2016;32(3):507-516.

Medial retinaculum reefing for the treatment for patellar instability.
Cerciello S, Lustig S, Costanzo G, Neyret P.
Knee Surg Sports Traumatol Arthrosc. 2014;22(10):2505-2512.

Mini-open medial reefing and arthroscopic lateral release for the treatment of recurrent patellar dislocation: a medium-term follow-up.
Nam EK, Karzel RP.
Am J Sports Med. 2005 Feb;33(2):220-30.

MPFL Reconstruction

Clinical outcomes after revision surgery for medial patellofemoral ligament reconstruction.
Chatterton A, Nielsen TG, Sorensen OG, Lind M.
Knee Surg Sports Traumatol Arthrosc. 2017.

Outcomes After Isolated Medial Patellofemoral Ligament Reconstruction for the Treatment of Recurrent Lateral Patellar Dislocations: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis.
Schneider DK, Grawe B, Magnussen RA, et al.
Am J Sports Med. 2016;44(11):2993-3005.

Patellar instability factors in isolated medial patellofemoral ligament reconstructions--what does the literature tell us? A systematic review.
Tompkins MA, Arendt EA.
Am J Sports Med. 2015 Sep;43(9):2318-27. doi: 10.1177/0363546515571544.

Factors Affecting the Outcomes of Double-Bundle Medial Patellofemoral Ligament Reconstruction for Recurrent Patellar Dislocations Evaluated by Multivariate Analysis.
Kita K, Tanaka Y, Toritsuka Y, Amano H, Uchida R, Takao R, Horibe S.
Am J Sports Med. 2015 Dec;43(12):2988-96. doi: 10.1177/0363546515606102.

Traumatic patellar dislocation: nonoperative treatment compared with MPFL reconstruction using patellar tendon.
Bitar AC, Demange MK, D'Elia CO, Camanho GL.
Am J Sports Med. 2012 Jan;40(1):114-22.

A systematic review of complications and failures associated with medial patellofemoral ligament reconstruction for recurrent patellar dislocation.
Shah JN, Howard JS, Flanigan DC, Brophy RH, Carey JL, Lattermann C.
Am J Sports Med. 2012 Aug;40(8):1916-23.

A long-term follow-up study after medial patellofemoral ligament reconstruction using the transferred semitendinosus tendon for patellar dislocation.
Deie M, Ochi M, Sumen Y, Adachi N, Kobayashi K, Yasumoto M.
Knee Surg Sports Traumatol Arthrosc. 2005 Oct;13(7):522-8.

Tibial Tubercle Osteotomy

Return to Sports After Tibial Tubercle Osteotomy for Patellofemoral Pain and Osteoarthritis.
Liu JN, Wu HH, Garcia GH, Kalbian IL, Strickland SM, Shubin Stein BE.
Arthroscopy. 2017.

The Incidence of Complications of Tibial Tubercle Osteotomy: A Systematic Review.
Payne J, Rimmke N, Schmitt LC, Flanigan DC, Magnussen RA.
Arthroscopy. 2015;31(9):1819-1825.

The Incidence of Complications of Tibial Tubercle Osteotomy: A Systematic Review.
Payne J, Rimmke N, Schmitt LC, Flanigan DC, Magnussen RA.
Arthroscopy. 2015 Sep;31(9):1819-25. doi: 10.1016/j.arthro.2015.03.028.

Tibial tubercle osteotomy in patello-femoral instability and in patellar height abnormality.
Caton JH, Dejour D.
Int Orthop. 2010 Feb;34(2):305-9.

Combined proximal and distal realignment procedures to treat the habitual dislocation of the patella in adults.Shen HC, Chao KH, Huang GS, Pan RY, Lee CH.
Am J Sports Med. 2007 Dec;35(12):2101-8.

Long-term evaluation of the Elmslie-Trillat-Maquet procedure for patellofemoral dysfunction.
Naranja RJ Jr, Reilly PJ, Kuhlman JR, Haut E, Torg JS.
Am J Sports Med. 1996 Nov-Dec;24(6):779-84.

Anteromedial tibial tubercle transfer without bone graft. Fulkerson JP, Becker GJ, Meaney JA, et al.
American Journal of Sports Medicine. 1990, 18(5), 490-6.

Trochleoplasty

Trochleoplasty techniques provide good clinical results in patients with trochlear dysplasia.
Longo UG, Vincenzo C, Mannering N, et al.
Knee Surg Sports Traumatol Arthrosc. 2017.

Results of medial patellofemoral ligament reconstruction compared with trochleoplasty plus individual extensor apparatus balancing in patellar instability caused by severe trochlear dysplasia: a systematic review and meta-analysis.
Balcarek P, Rehn S, Howells NR, et al.
Knee Surg Sports Traumatol Arthrosc. 2016.

Surgical treatment of patellofemoral instability using trochleoplasty or MPFL reconstruction: a systematic review. Testa EA, Camathias C, Amsler F, Henle P, Friederich NF, Hirschmann MT.
Knee Surg Sports Traumatol Arthrosc. 2015.

Deepening Trochleoplasty With a Thick Osteochondral Flap for Patellar Instability: Clinical and Functional Outcomes at a Mean 6-Year Follow-up.
McNamara I, Bua N, Smith TO, Ali K, Donell ST.
Am J Sports Med. 2015 Nov;43(11):2706-13. doi: 10.1177/0363546515597679

The Lyon's sulcus-deepening trochleoplasty in previous unsuccessful patellofemoral surgery.
Dejour D, Byn P, Ntagiopoulos PG.
Int Orthop. 2012 Dec 30. [Epub ahead of print]

Trochleaplasty for recurrent patellar dislocation in association with trochlear dysplasia. A 4- to 14-year follow-up study.
von Knoch F, Böhm T, Bürgi ML, von Knoch M, Bereiter H.
J Bone Joint Surg Br. 2006 Oct;88(10):1331-5.

Patellofemoral cartilage restoration

Cartilage Restoration in the Patellofemoral Joint.
Hinckel BB, Gomoll AH, Farr J, 2nd.
Am J Orthop (Belle Mead NJ). 2017;46(5):217-222.

Changing trends in the use of cartilage restoration techniques for the patellofemoral joint: a systematic review.
Shanmugaraj A, Coughlin RP, Kuper GN, et al.
Knee Surg Sports Traumatol Arthrosc. 2018.

Autologous chondrocyte implantation in the patella: a multicenter experience.
Gomoll AH, Gillogly SD, Cole BJ, et al.
Am J Sports Med. 2014;42(5):1074-1081.

Fresh osteochondral allograft transplantation for isolated patellar cartilage injury.
Gracitelli GC, Meric G, Pulido PA, Gortz S, De Young AJ, Bugbee WD.
Am J Sports Med. 2015;43(4):879-884.

Osteochondral Allograft Transplantation of the Femoral Trochlea.
Cameron JI, Pulido PA, McCauley JC, Bugbee WD.
Am J Sports Med. 2016;44(3):633-638.

Patellofemoral Cartilage Restoration: Indications, Techniques, and Outcomes of Autologous Chondrocytes Implantation, Matrix-Induced Chondrocyte Implantation, and Particulated Juvenile Allograft Cartilage.
Hinckel BB, Gomoll AH.
J Knee Surg. 2018;31(3):212-226.

Advanced patellofemoral cartilage lesions in patients younger than 50 years of age: is there an ideal operative option?
Noyes FR, Barber-Westin SD.
Arthroscopy. 2013;29(8):1423-1436.

Patellofemoral Arthritis

Patellar Instability Management: A Survey of the International Patellofemoral Study Group.
Liu JN, Steinhaus ME, Kalbian IL, et al.
Am J Sports Med. 2017:363546517732045.

Outcome of patellofemoral arthroplasty, determinants for success.
Willekens P, Victor J, Verbruggen D, Vande Kerckhove M, Van Der Straeten C.
Acta Orthop Belg. 2015 Dec;81(4):759-67

[Patellofemoral arthroplasty: indication, technique and results].
Cotic M, Imhoff AB.
Orthopade. 2014 Oct;43(10):898-904. doi: 10.1007/s00132-014-3006-7. Review. German.

Advanced patellofemoral cartilage lesions in patients younger than 50 years of age: is there an ideal operative option?
Noyes FR, Barber-Westin SD.
Arthroscopy. 2013;29(8):1423-1436.

Outcomes of Total Knee Replacement after Patellofemoral Arthroplasty.
Hutt J, Dodd M, Bourke H, Bell J.
J Knee Surg. 2012 Nov 30

Long-term outcomes of patellofemoral arthroplasty.
van Jonbergen HP, Werkman DM, Barnaart LF, van Kampen A.
J Arthroplasty. 2010 Oct;25(7):1066-71

Isolierte Arthrose des Patellofemoralgelenks beim jüngeren Patienten (<50 Jahre) [Isolated arthrosis of the patellofemoral joint in younger patients (<50 years)].
Lustig S, Servien E, Biedert R, Neyret P.
Ortopade 2008, 37(9), 848-857. – Italian

Patellofemoral arthritis.
Grelsamer R P, & Stein D A.
Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery; American volume, 2006, 88(8), 1849-1860.

The treatment of Patellofemoral Osteoarthritis with Partial Lateral Facetectomy.
Yercan H, Ait SI, Selmi T, Neyret P.
Clin Orthop Relat Red, 2006, 436,14-19

Patellofemoral Replacement Surgery
Ronald P. Grelsamer, MD

Others

An Algorithmic Approach to the Management of Recurrent Lateral Patellar Dislocation.
Weber AE, Nathani A, Dines JS, et al.
J Bone Joint Surg Am. 2016;98(5):417-427.

Return to Play after Patellar Stabilization.
Sherman SL, Deasis DP, Garrone AJ, Voss EE, Oliver HA.
Curr Rev Musculoskelet Med. 2018.

Evidence-based approach of treatment options for postoperative knee pain.
Farr J, Jaggers R, Lewis H, Plackis A, Sim SB, Sherman SL.
Phys Sportsmed. 2014;42(2):58-70.

Reconstruction of the medial patellotibial ligament results in favorable clinical outcomes: a systematic review.
Baumann CA, Pratte EL, Sherman SL, Arendt EA, Hinckel BB.
Knee Surg Sports Traumatol Arthrosc. 2018;26(10):2920-2933.

Return-to-Play Guidelines After Medial Patellofemoral Ligament Surgery for Recurrent Patellar Instability: A Systematic Review.
Zaman S, White A, Shi WJ, Freedman KB, Dodson CC.
Am J Sports Med. 2017:363546517713663.

 

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