Recommended Literature Resources

Recommended articles

Editor: Robert Magnussen, MD

The following articles have been recommended by members of the International Patellofemoral Study Group.

The Normal Patellofemoral Joint

Patellofemoral Pain Syndrome

Patellofemoral Joint Instability

Patellofemoral Arthritis


Patellar nomenclature: The tower of babel revisited.
Grelsamer R P.
Clinical orthopaedics and related research, 2005, (436), 60-65.

The Normal Patellofemoral Joint


Current concepts review: The medial patellofemoral ligament.
Bicos J, Fulkerson J P, & Amis A.
The American journal of sports medicine. 2007, 35(3), 484-492.

The anatomy of the medial patellofemoral ligament.
Baldwin J L.
The American journal of sports medicine, 2009, 37(12), 2355-2361.

Anatomical analysis of the medial patellofemoral ligament of the knee, especially the femoral attachment.
Nomura E, Inoue M, & Osada, N.
Knee surgery, sports traumatology, arthroscopy, 2005, 13(7), 510-515.


In vivo patellar tracking: clinical motions and patellofemoral indices.
Nha KW, Papannagari R, Gill TJ, Van de Velde SK, Freiberg AA, Rubash HE, Li G.
J Orthop Res. 2008 Aug;26(8):1067-74.

Magnetic resonance imaging of patellofemoral kinematics with weight-bearing.
Patel VV, Hall K, Ries M, Lindsey C, Ozhinsky E, Lu Y, Majumdar S.
J Bone Joint Surg Am. 2003 Dec;85-A(12):2419-24.

Patellofemoral joint kinematics: the circular path of the patella around the trochlear axis.
Iranpour F, Merican AM, Baena FR, Cobb JP, Amis AA.
J Orthop Res. 2010 May;28(5):589-94.

Patterns of patellofemoral articular cartilage wear in cadavers.
Gorniak GC. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther. 2009 Sep;39(9):675-83.

The acute effect of running on knee articular cartilage and meniscus magnetic resonance relaxation times in young healthy adults.
Subburaj K, Kumar D, Souza RB, Alizai H, Li X, Link TM, Majumdar S.
Am J Sports Med. 2012 Sep;40(9):2134-41.

Patellofemoral Pain Syndrome


Histologic evidence of retinacular nerve injury associated with patellofemoral malalignment
Fulkerson JP, Tennant R, Jaivin JS, et al.
Clinical Orthopaedics and Related Research. 1985 (197), 196-205.

Quantitative analysis of nerve changes in the lateral retinaculum in patients with isolated symptomatic patellofemoral malalignment. A preliminary study.
Sanchis-Alfonso V, Roselló-Sastre E, Monteagudo-Castro C, Esquerdo J.
Am J Sports Med. 1998 Sep-Oct;26(5):703-9.

Decreased pulsatile blood flow in the patella in patellofemoral pain syndrome.
Näslund J, Waldén M, Lindberg LG.
Am J Sports Med. 2007 Oct;35(10):1668-73. Epub 2007 Jun 13.

Factors associated with patellofemoral pain syndrome: a systematic review.
Lankhorst NE, Bierma-Zeinstra SM, van Middelkoop M.
Br J Sports Med. 2012 Jul 19. [Epub ahead of print]

Diagnosis and Treatment

Diagnosis and treatment of patients with patellofemoral pain.
Fulkerson JP.
Am J Sports Med. 2002 May-Jun;30(3):447-56. Review.

Factors that predict a poor outcome 5-8 years after the diagnosis of patellofemoral pain: a multicentre observational analysis.
Lankhorst NE, van Middelkoop M, Crossley KM, Bierma-Zeinstra SM, Oei EH, Vicenzino B, Collins NJ.
Br J Sports Med. 2015 Oct 13. pii: bjsports-2015-094664. doi: 10.1136/bjsports-2015-094664.

Resection of clinically localized segments of painful retinaculum in the treatment of selected patients with anterior knee pain.
Kasim N, & Fulkerson JP.
American Journal of Sports Medicine. 2000, 28(6), 811-814.

Is Knee Pain During Adolescence a Self-limiting Condition? Prognosis of Patellofemoral Pain and Other Types of Knee Pain.
Rathleff MS, Rathleff CR, Olesen JL, Rasmussen S, Roos EM.
Am J Sports Med. 2016 Jan 20. pii: 0363546515622456. [Epub ahead of print]

Immediate effect and predictors of effectiveness of taping for patellofemoral pain syndrome: a prospective cohort study.
Lan TY, Lin WP, Jiang CC, Chiang H.
Am J Sports Med. 2010 Aug;38(8):1626-30. Epub 2010 May 26.

Hip strengthening prior to functional exercises reduces pain sooner than quadriceps strengthening in females with patellofemoral pain syndrome: a randomized clinical trial.
Dolak KL, Silkman C, Medina McKeon J, Hosey RG, Lattermann C, Uhl TL.
J Orthop Sports Phys Ther. 2011 Aug;41(8):560-70. doi: 10.2519/jospt.2011.3499. Epub 2011 Jun 7.

Hip posterolateral musculature strengthening in sedentary women with patellofemoral pain syndrome: a randomized controlled clinical trial with 1-year follow-up.
Fukuda TY, Melo WP, Zaffalon BM, Rossetto FM, Magalhães E, Bryk FF, Martin RL.
J Orthop Sports Phys Ther. 2012 Oct;42(10):823-30.

Patellofemoral Joint Instability


Current concepts review: The medial patellofemoral ligament.
Bicos J, Fulkerson J P, & Amis A.
The American journal of sports medicine. 2007, 35(3), 484-492.

Patella alta: association with patellofemoral alignment and changes in contact area during weight-bearing
Ward SR, Terk MR, Powers CM.
J Bone Joint Surg Am. 2007 Aug;89(8):1749-55.

The Relationship Between Tibial Tuberosity-Trochlear Groove Distance and Abnormal Patellar Tracking in Patients With Unilateral Patellar Instability.
Williams AA, Elias JJ, Tanaka MJ, Thawait GK, Demehri S, Carrino JA, Cosgarea AJ.
Arthroscopy. 2016 Jan;32(1):55-61. doi: 10.1016/j.arthro.2015.06.037.

Individualizing the Tibial Tubercle-Trochlear Groove Distance: Patellar Instability Ratios That Predict Recurrent Instability.
Camp CL, Heidenreich MJ, Dahm DL, Stuart MJ, Levy BA, Krych AJ.
Am J Sports Med. 2016 Feb;44(2):393-9. doi: 10.1177/0363546515602483.

Patella instability: building bridges across the ocean a historic review.
Arendt EA, Dejour D.
Knee Surg Sports Traumatol Arthrosc. 2013 Feb;21(2):279-93.


The TT-TG Index: a new knee size adjusted measure method to determine the TT-TG distance.
Hingelbaum S, Best R, Huth J, Wagner D, Bauer G, Mauch F.
Knee Surg Sports Traumatol Arthrosc. 2014 Oct;22(10):2388-95. doi: 10.1007/s00167-014-3204-1.

Magnetic resonance imaging characteristics of the medial patellofemoral ligament lesion in acute lateral patellar dislocations considering trochlear dysplasia, patella alta, and tibial tuberosity-trochlear groove distance.
Balcarek P, Ammon J, Frosch S, Walde TA, Schüttrumpf JP, Ferlemann KG, Lill H, Stürmer KM, Frosch KH.
Arthroscopy. 2010 Jul;26(7):926-35.

CT and MRI measurements of tibial tubercle-trochlear groove distances are not equivalent in patients with patellar instability.
Camp CL, Stuart MJ, Krych AJ, Levy BA, Bond JR, Collins MS, Dahm DL.
Am J Sports Med. 2013 Aug;41(8):1835-40. doi: 10.1177/0363546513484895.

Imaging in patellofemoral instability: an abnormality-based approach.
Saggin PR, Saggin JI, Dejour D.
Sports Med Arthrosc. 2012 Sep;20(3):145-51.

Non-operative Management and Recurrence

First-Time Patellofemoral Dislocation: Risk Factors for Recurrent Instability.
Lewallen L, McIntosh A, Dahm D.
J Knee Surg. 2015 Aug;28(4):303-9. doi: 10.1055/s-0034-1398373.

Predictors of recurrent instability after acute patellofemoral dislocation in pediatric and adolescent patients.
Lewallen LW, McIntosh AL, Dahm DL.
Am J Sports Med. 2013 Mar;41(3):575-81. doi: 10.1177/0363546512472873

Predictors of Recurrent Patellar Instability in Children and Adolescents After First-time Dislocation.
Jaquith BP, Parikh SN.
J Pediatr Orthop. 2015 Oct 21

Surgical Techniques

MPFL Reconstruction

Radiographic Reference Points Are Inaccurate With and Without a True Lateral Radiograph: The Importance of Anatomy in Medial Patellofemoral Ligament Reconstruction.
Ziegler CG, Fulkerson JP, Edgar C.
Am J Sports Med. 2016 Jan;44(1):133-42. doi: 10.1177/0363546515611652.

Accuracy of femoral tunnel placement in medial patellofemoral ligament reconstruction: the effect of a nearly true-lateral fluoroscopic view.
Balcarek P, Walde TA.
Am J Sports Med. 2015 Sep;43(9):2228-32. doi: 10.1177/0363546515591265.

Troubleshooting the Femoral Attachment During Medial Patellofemoral Ligament Reconstruction: Location, Location, Location.
Burrus MT, Werner BC, Conte EJ, Diduch DR.
Orthop J Sports Med. 2015 Jan 29;3(1):2325967115569198. doi: 10.1177/2325967115569198

Reconstruction of the medial patellofemoral ligament for the treatment of habitual or recurrent dislocation of the patella in children.
Deie M, Ochi M, Sumen Y, Yasumoto M, Kobayashi K, Kimura H.
J Bone Joint Surg Br. 2003 Aug;85(6):887-90.

Surgical technique and rationale for medial patellofemoral ligament reconstruction for recurrent patellar dislocation.
Nomura E, Inoue M.
Arthroscopy. 2003 May-Jun;19(5):E47.

Reconstruction of the medial patellofemoral ligament by tunnel transfer of the semitendinosus tendon.
Ostermeier S, Stukenborg-Colsman C, Wirth C, et al.
Operative Orthopädie und Traumatologie. 2007. 19(5-6), 489-501.

Anatomical reconstruction of the medial patellofemoral ligament in children with open growth-plates.
Nelitz M, Reichel H, Dornacher D, Lippacher S.
Arch Orthop Trauma Surg. 2012 Nov;132(11):1647-51

Radiographic landmarks for femoral tunnel placement in medial patellofemoral ligament reconstruction.
Schöttle PB, Schmeling A, Rosenstiel N, Weiler A.
Am J Sports Med. 2007 May;35(5):801-4.

Anatomical double-bundle MPFL reconstruction with an aperture fixation.
Schöttle PB, Hensler D, Imhoff AB.
Knee Surg Sports Traumatol Arthrosc. 2010 Feb;18(2):147-51.

Tibial Tubercle Osteotomy

Tibial tuberosity transfer for episodic patellar dislocation
Servien E, Verdonk P, Neyret P.
Sports Med Arthrosc Rev, 2007, 15(2), 61-67.

Distal Realignements.
Servien E, Piedade S, Lustig S, Neyret P.
Techniche chirurgiche in Ortopedia e Traumatologia 2007, 5(3), 129-133 – German

Anteromedialization of the tibial tuberosity for patellofemoral malalignment.
Fulkerson JP.
Clin Orthop Relat Res. 1983 Jul-Aug;(177):176-81.

[Idiopathic high patella in adolescents. Apropos of 61 surgical cases].
Caton J, Mironneau A, Walch G, Levigne C, Michel CR.
Rev Chir Orthop Reparatrice Appar Mot. 1990;76(4):253-60. French.


Trochleoplasty in dysplastic knee trochlea.
Verdonk R, Jansegers E, Stuyts B.
Knee Surg Sports Traumatol Arthrosc. 2005 Oct;13(7):529-33.

Modified Dejour trochleoplasty for severe dysplasia: operative technique and early clinical results.
Donell ST, Joseph G, Hing CB, Marshall TJ.
Knee. 2006 Aug;13(4):266-73. Epub 2006 Apr 24.

Biomechanical Effects of Surgery

MPFL Reconstruction

Femoral insertion site of the graft used to replace the medial patellofemoral ligament influences the ligament dynamic changes during knee flexion and the clinical outcome.
Sanchis-Alfonso V, Ramirez-Fuentes C, Montesinos-Berry E, Domenech J, Martí-Bonmatí L.
Knee Surg Sports Traumatol Arthrosc. 2015 Dec 12. [Epub ahead of print]

The effect of tibial tuberosity medialization and lateralization on patellofemoral joint kinematics, contact mechanics, and stability.
Stephen JM, Lumpaopong P, Dodds AL, Williams A, Amis AA.
Am J Sports Med. 2015 Jan;43(1):186-94. doi: 10.1177/0363546514554553.

The ability of medial patellofemoral ligament reconstruction to correct patellar kinematics and contact mechanics in the presence of a lateralized tibial tubercle.
Stephen JM, Dodds AL, Lumpaopong P, Kader D, Williams A, Amis AA.
Am J Sports Med. 2015 Sep;43(9):2198-207. doi: 10.1177/0363546515597906.

Patellofemoral forces after medial patellofemoral ligament reconstruction: a biomechanical analysis.
Bicos J, Carofino B, Andersen M, et al.
The Journal of Knee Surgery. 2006, 19(4), 317-326.

Dynamic measurement of patellofemoral contact pressure following reconstruction of the medial patellofemoral ligament: An in vitro study.
Ostermeier S, Holst M, Bohnsack M, et al.
Clinical Biomechanics. 2007, 22(3), 327-335.

In vitro measurement of patellar kinematics following reconstruction of the medial patellofemoral ligament.
Ostermeier S, Holst M, Bohnsack M, et al.
Knee surgery, Sports Traumatology, Arthroscopy. 2007, 15(3), 276-285.

Tibial Tubercle Osteotomy

Articular cartilage contact pressure after tibial tuberosity transfer. A cadaveric study.
Kuroda R, Kambic H, Valdevit A, Andrish JT.
Am J Sports Med. 2001 Jul-Aug;29(4):403-9.

Trochlear contact pressures after anteromedialization of the tibial tubercle.
Beck PR, Thomas AL, Farr J, et al.
American Journal of Sports Medicine. 2005, 33(11), 1710-1715.

Biomechanics of high tibial osteotomy.
Amis AA.
Knee Surg Sports Traumatol Arthrosc. 2013 Jan;21(1):197-205.

Other Procedures

Distribution of patellofemoral joint pressures after femoral trochlear osteotomy.
Kuroda R, Kambic H, Valdevit A, Andrish J.
Knee Surg Sports Traumatol Arthrosc. 2002 Jan;10(1):33-7. Epub 2001 Nov 9.

Dynamic measurement of patellofemoral kinematics and contact pressure after lateral retinacular release: An in vitro study.
Ostermeier S, Holst M, Hurschler C, et al.
Knee surgery, sports traumatology, arthroscopy. 2007, 15(5), 547-554.

Surgical Outcomes

Medial Reefing and Lateral Release

Mini-open medial reefing and arthroscopic lateral release for the treatment of recurrent patellar dislocation: a medium-term follow-up.
Nam EK, Karzel RP.
Am J Sports Med. 2005 Feb;33(2):220-30.

MPFL Reconstruction

A long-term follow-up study after medial patellofemoral ligament reconstruction using the transferred semitendinosus tendon for patellar dislocation.
Deie M, Ochi M, Sumen Y, Adachi N, Kobayashi K, Yasumoto M.
Knee Surg Sports Traumatol Arthrosc. 2005 Oct;13(7):522-8.

Factors Affecting the Outcomes of Double-Bundle Medial Patellofemoral Ligament Reconstruction for Recurrent Patellar Dislocations Evaluated by Multivariate Analysis.
Kita K, Tanaka Y, Toritsuka Y, Amano H, Uchida R, Takao R, Horibe S.
Am J Sports Med. 2015 Dec;43(12):2988-96. doi: 10.1177/0363546515606102.

Traumatic patellar dislocation: nonoperative treatment compared with MPFL reconstruction using patellar tendon.
Bitar AC, Demange MK, D'Elia CO, Camanho GL.
Am J Sports Med. 2012 Jan;40(1):114-22.

Patellar instability factors in isolated medial patellofemoral ligament reconstructions--what does the literature tell us? A systematic review.
Tompkins MA, Arendt EA.
Am J Sports Med. 2015 Sep;43(9):2318-27. doi: 10.1177/0363546515571544.

A systematic review of complications and failures associated with medial patellofemoral ligament reconstruction for recurrent patellar dislocation.
Shah JN, Howard JS, Flanigan DC, Brophy RH, Carey JL, Lattermann C.
Am J Sports Med. 2012 Aug;40(8):1916-23.

Tibial Tubercle Osteotomy

Anteromedial tibial tubercle transfer without bone graft. Fulkerson JP, Becker GJ, Meaney JA, et al.
American Journal of Sports Medicine. 1990, 18(5), 490-6.

Combined proximal and distal realignment procedures to treat the habitual dislocation of the patella in adults.Shen HC, Chao KH, Huang GS, Pan RY, Lee CH.
Am J Sports Med. 2007 Dec;35(12):2101-8.

Long-term evaluation of the Elmslie-Trillat-Maquet procedure for patellofemoral dysfunction.
Naranja RJ Jr, Reilly PJ, Kuhlman JR, Haut E, Torg JS.
Am J Sports Med. 1996 Nov-Dec;24(6):779-84.

The Incidence of Complications of Tibial Tubercle Osteotomy: A Systematic Review.
Payne J, Rimmke N, Schmitt LC, Flanigan DC, Magnussen RA.
Arthroscopy. 2015 Sep;31(9):1819-25. doi: 10.1016/j.arthro.2015.03.028.

Tibial tubercle osteotomy in patello-femoral instability and in patellar height abnormality.
Caton JH, Dejour D.
Int Orthop. 2010 Feb;34(2):305-9.


Trochleaplasty for recurrent patellar dislocation in association with trochlear dysplasia. A 4- to 14-year follow-up study.
von Knoch F, Böhm T, Bürgi ML, von Knoch M, Bereiter H.
J Bone Joint Surg Br. 2006 Oct;88(10):1331-5.

The Lyon's sulcus-deepening trochleoplasty in previous unsuccessful patellofemoral surgery.
Dejour D, Byn P, Ntagiopoulos PG.
Int Orthop. 2012 Dec 30. [Epub ahead of print]

Deepening Trochleoplasty With a Thick Osteochondral Flap for Patellar Instability: Clinical and Functional Outcomes at a Mean 6-Year Follow-up.
McNamara I, Bua N, Smith TO, Ali K, Donell ST.
Am J Sports Med. 2015 Nov;43(11):2706-13. doi: 10.1177/0363546515597679

Patellofemoral Arthritis

Patellofemoral arthritis.
Grelsamer R P, & Stein D A.
Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery; American volume, 2006, 88(8), 1849-1860.

Outcome of patellofemoral arthroplasty, determinants for success.
Willekens P, Victor J, Verbruggen D, Vande Kerckhove M, Van Der Straeten C.
Acta Orthop Belg. 2015 Dec;81(4):759-67

Isolierte Arthrose des Patellofemoralgelenks beim jüngeren Patienten (<50 Jahre) [Isolated arthrosis of the patellofemoral joint in younger patients (<50 years)].
Lustig S, Servien E, Biedert R, Neyret P.
Ortopade 2008, 37(9), 848-857. – Italian

The treatment of Patellofemoral Osteoarthritis with Partial Lateral Facetectomy.
Yercan H, Ait SI, Selmi T, Neyret P.
Clin Orthop Relat Red, 2006, 436,14-19

Long-term outcomes of patellofemoral arthroplasty.
van Jonbergen HP, Werkman DM, Barnaart LF, van Kampen A.
J Arthroplasty. 2010 Oct;25(7):1066-71

Patellofemoral Replacement Surgery
Ronald P. Grelsamer, MD

[Patellofemoral arthroplasty: indication, technique and results].
Cotic M, Imhoff AB.
Orthopade. 2014 Oct;43(10):898-904. doi: 10.1007/s00132-014-3006-7. Review. German.

Outcomes of Total Knee Replacement after Patellofemoral Arthroplasty.
Hutt J, Dodd M, Bourke H, Bell J.
J Knee Surg. 2012 Nov 30.


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