Chapter 6: Dysplasias


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Figure 6.1. Despite the complete absence of a patella, the trochlear side of the patellofemoral joint looks completely normal. The sulcus shows good depth, and the lateral trochlear facet is more prominent than the medial, which is the normal characteristic.

Figure 6.2. A, Patella parva. The patient is asymptomatic, but the patella is indeed unusually small. B, Axial view shows the patella well within the trochlear borders. The trochlea is nevertheless well developed.

Figure 6.3. A, Wiberg Type I; B, Wiberg Type II; C, Wiberg Type III.

Figure 6.4. Baumgartl type with a medial excrescence (arrow).

Figure 6.5. "So‑called" pebble deformity.

Figure 6.6. Alpine hunter's cap deformity. Here the patella is approaching a single articular facet. There is also considerable decrease in the depth of the trochlear sulcus.

Figure 6.7. Example of a half‑moon‑shaped patella with a bipartite fragment which was removed because patient had severe pain.

Figure 6.8. Variations in patella form considered dysplastic.

Figure 6.9. Further patellar dysplasias.

Figure 6.10. Classic bipartite patellar dysplasia with separation of superolateral corner.

Figure 6.11. Mori has suggested release of the attachments to a bipartite patella fragment. Reprinted with permission from Mori Y, Okumo H, Iketani H, Kuroki Y. Efficacy of lateral retinacular release for painful bipartite patella. Am J Sports Med 1995;23(I1): 13‑18.

Figure 6.12. An example of patellar reduplication.

Figure 6.13. An example of reduplication in the sagittal plane, with patellar subluxation and trochlear dysplasia.

Figure 6.14. A lateral radiograph of the knee of a patient with achondroplasia.

Figure 6.15. Severe patella infera as a complication of tibial tubercle surgery in a youngster.

Figure 6.16. Various trochlear abnormalities.

Figure 6.17. Post‑traumatic trochlear dysplasia may occur after fracture. (Courtesy of David Burstein, Avon, Connecticut).


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